Graphite for Scientific Illustrations – Supplement to the free Guidebook


English subtitles kindly reviewed by
Bobbi Angell, Botanical Illustrator If you’ve downloaded
my guidebook of graphite method and if you have no doubts,
you must be one of two kinds: either you saw only the pictures and got done,
or you downloaded it but have not opened the file yet… Among those who saw only the pictures… maybe you have grasped something
quite different from what I wanted to explain but if you’ve read the guidebook,
I’m sure you have doubts and this video is supposed to resolve the main and
most common doubts I’ve seen arising at workshops Everybody likes the pictures in books, I guess and we continue liking them as we grow up so we look at the pictures and
perhaps we read not so attentively as we look I think we even look at the pictures first then we right away grasp somehow what we see and later on, we read the text wanting
to fit it into what we’ve grasped in this guidebook’s case
maybe there’s a mix of two things: the fact that I’ve not expressed myself so well
[obs: English version is improved] and that someone who reads sometimes
bypasses the highlights of the text and the important parts
where the text explains, in detail, what the pictures intend to display anyway, the demonstrations will clarify things Based on the workshops, from what I observe
on the feedback of the students the sections which cause trouble are section 2.5, which shows the differences between
the pencil movements – zigzag and elliptic which we’ll see right now to fix this doubt and section 1.3, which brings
one rectangle to be filled in and presents all its stages, according
to the layers as it is being filled we’ll see this section further on in the video.
Now we’ll see the pencil movements of section 2.5 and the difference between what people
understand about what I call elliptic movement and what I actually wanted to explain in the guidebook it’s very common to interpret
that the elliptic movement is this kind of thing: ellipses drawn on paper, one on another it’s common indeed to use this kind of movement
of little ellipses drawn one on another which provides a very even covering I find that the movement I suggest is more productive,
for it fills in more quickly a large area of paper so the pencil enters the paper flying
and leaves it flying, making this looping then let’s erase it all, note how the pencil
arrives flying and leaves flying performing shallow, flat ellipses, leaving very dilute
strokes both at the start and at the end of strokes then the filling in gets entirely uniform,
so let me remark that the elliptic movement is like this as is the movement of a fork
whisking eggs to make an omelet so let’s think of an “omeletic” movement to make it clear and the next guidebook will bring
this term instead of “elliptic” So now that we have
the “omelliptic” movement clear let’s move on to the uses of the movements
and see how they work in the practice In this demonstration maybe you understand
why my apparent issue with the zigzag… It’s not really an issue – it’s useful in the cases where
it’s useful, in all the other cases it’s useless but it’s our intuitive movement,
after all we’ve used it since childhood but it leaves marks both on the zig and on the zag
and when we fill several areas like this it doesn’t stay uniform in between,
not to mention the obvious marks of the splices which people try to correct filling
the lighter gaps and darkening even more or even worse, on the very marks
they apply more graphite then it gets darkened overall,
that’s the tendency Now with the elliptic movement, it all gets more even and we’re able to splice the strokes both at their
beginning and at their end. We do very soft splices… …and even if marks arise, we apply graphite
onto them, being able to not darken too much and the tendency of the elliptic movement
is to even it out, provided we work with a light hand If we begin a new area and a blank gap
arises that we need to amend, the splice is easy, we even out the gaps with this
filling that resembles brushing graphite onto the paper here is a demonstration on how zigzag
may be helpful. If we need some texture… it can provide us with a very suitable texture. For certain
patterns we see in nature it is exactly what we need. Now some students that are in a… hurry
usually consider that the elliptic movement makes strokes
in one direction only and not both so the zigzag fills in much faster.
So they ask if strokes could be done in both directions. Do as you wish, but the essence
of the elliptic movement is that both the start and the end of strokes are mild.
And the essence of zigzag is the opposite it stains in the zig and in the zag,
it’s always staining, and stains splices too So let’s see the most common questions of students This is a blend of elliptic and zigzag movements
that I’d call pendular. The pencil moves like a pendulum so one does strokes with movements of coming and
going that save time, if one is concerned with time… But most people are concerned with the direction
of strokes. Can it be done from right to left? yes it can! Can it be done
from left to right? Yes it can as well. In the direction of the body? Yes!
What matters is mastering all kinds of movements so that we are able to draw
without moving the paper When we describe a method, in fact
people tend to regard it as a doctrine so they become a bit afraid of stepping out
of what was just suggested the idea, however, is to furnish
a repertoire, a multitude of possible actions so that you can have more choices
and figure out YOUR best style, YOUR best approach It’s possible that you hear me saying here sometimes:
“this you can”, “that you cannot”… “correct”, “incorrect” or something like that but this applies to THIS method alone,
not to graphite in general and its use or even less to Art. With Art,
when using any material, everything is allowed. There needs to be freedom to research
any new technique and any method But for THIS specific method there are
some procedures for achieving the best result With the study of THIS method there ARE indeed some
restrictions as “shoulds” and “should-nots”, “correct” etc Yet in the life of the artist, one has to be free
to research, there’s no should/shouldn’t I speak like that because I hear many questions like
“is this allowed?” coming from beginners they get somewhat restricted by rules
and yet there’s no need of rules what’s important is to be able to perceive
the relation between the way you cope with the material and the outcome you’ve been achieving.
If you want a new outcome you have to be able to change your attitude and your method Talking about time… people tend
to hurry up to fill an area with shade and that starts to lead to lack of care
for the work, lack of acuity sometimes One needs to stay tuned to all senses. Art is not just
a visual matter, it is a whole, integrative matter We have to SENSE pencil’s touch, feel the texture
of the paper, the graphite touching it, we have to hear and by doing so, we’re able to develop a notion of
details, subtleties of the differences among strokes even where certain dirt came from,
we know when it came from paper or from graphite or if it was dust over the paper. We become quite… quite sensitive and meticulous.
So one has to try and use all senses. You’re going to ask me: “but how can I use smell?”
But you can do it too… It’s very common that by rush, the student begins
to miss the care for the paper, begins to lash it bashing the paper with these landings
of the elliptic movement and this causes marks and
damages the paper’s surface so that later on it becomes impossible
to remove the stains of graphite that arise they enter the fibers of the paper, under its surface.
In this demonstration you will be able to hear turn up the volume or use earphones
to sense and hear the stroke on paper to realize the differences among various handlings,
and as you begin to feel it, it comes to a point of hurting it hurts you when the paper is mistreated, as if you
were extending your senses to pencil and paper your neurons seem to extend like that… Just the first three strokes will be delicate We can perceive how the paper
is taking a beating from the pencil Now feel the difference of a more delicate movement and now the harsh movement again So all these little marks that arise have damaged the
paper besides applying graphite. This may be definitive if all this harshness continues,
the very precision of strokes changes and little crooks arise
at the beginning of each mark Now to avoid distraction, the image will have
an effect so that we can stay tuned only to the sound Note how pleasant it is to hear the pencil touching
mildly on the paper, it seems they love each other… Now we get into ways of holding the pencil and some cautionary tips before drawing,
like always protecting the paper from your hand. While working it’s good to have a sheet of paper
between your hand and the drawing, for various reasons first: the hand leaves greasy residues on the paper
and over time this will yellow and stain the paper by the way you should avoid speaking over your
drawing while working [and after it’s finished too] because sprinkled saliva will
contaminate your drawing and over time it will cause severe yellow spots,
forming bacteria cultures the protective paper also prevents your
hand’s humidity from wrinkling the drawing paper which makes things irreversible. Also, there’s the
problem of rubbing the drawing as your hand moves some students don’t even notice: “gosh, stained
my whole drawing!” and I go like: “may I see your hand?” and the student’s hand looks like
it just came out of a coal mine… Always protect your drawing then.
The hand is what slides on the protective paper, it’s not the paper that slides with the hand,
otherwise it screws up the whole drawing let the pencil be loose in hand, it must be held lightly,
not like a pelican that wants to devour the pencil the pencil stands just balanced by the fingers,
without much pressure exerted over it also avoid holding like when you are writing. You must
sense the pencil is light upon your hand, resting so the stroke is made
with the very lightness of the pencil You need to keep yourself
aware of the way you’re holding the pencil if your hand begins to wander towards the tip,
either you’re aiming a more precise stroke – which is really needed sometimes, as when making
a contour line – or you’re starting to hold it heavily The pencil held at its middle has
the advantage of reducing the force one applies so the tiny differences of our hand’s
force are diluted along the lever and there on the tip they lose power
and don’t make a difference on the strokes when you hold it too close to the tip, tiny differences
of your hand’s force already reflect on your strokes besides that, if you’re holding the pencil near its tip,
but not to make marks that really require it – something more precise and careful – maybe you are
applying too much force and that’s what’s dangerous because it raises the problem of the brilliance
of graphite, which we will see further on here Some artists prefer using the pencil more slanted,
with a quite acute angle in relation to the paper But in classical drawing the tendency is using the pencil
a bit less slanted so that the tip touches the paper although it’s still slanted to 30 degrees,
the tip is what makes the drawing and the premise of mastering movements at best
is still valid, yet without the need of moving paper rather relying on arm movements etc…
even the most bizarre ones It is important to speak on the way some artists
hold the pencil in a more slanted mode, to 10 degrees this provides a more textured effect
and not so much precision the reasons why it gets more textured are
well explained in the Guidebook, in detail we’re talking about drawing for illustration, a classical
and more precise drawing. This is made with the tip hence this scene of the pencil touching with its tip. Although a bit slanted, the tip is what touches the paper Now we’ll see these three kinds of movement
for drawing, two of them with backing which provides more steadiness on strokes Here the elbow rests
and only the forearm moves here only the hand moves
with the wrist resting and here only fingers move If you’re alert, you remember I spoke twice on the importance of being able
to draw without moving the paper. There comes the inevitable question:
“but then am I not allowed to move the paper?” Yes, of course you can move the paper.
But it creates a struggle with drawing. because if you’re drawing a landscape,
how is it that you will move the landscape with it? The fact that you’re moving the paper
shifts your references of the lines And mentally your brain has to make a whole
calculation to find relations, with the paper now shifted, Like the relations that are in the object you’re drawing Typically, what we tend to do when we move the paper
is to start ignoring the object or reality we’re drawing because as all the relations in my paper shifted, I end up
no longer looking at the object and I draw by memory that is, I’m making it through a mental map
I’ve made up and not by directly observing reality this is the sin of an illustrator,
who needs to remain always looking at reality So, yes you can move the paper, but you’ll have
hard times and you’ll begin to ignore reality you’ll draw what you’re guessing
and not what you’re seeing. hence these techniques of drawing
without moving the paper are so important. a good illustrator leaves the paper in place and is able to draw by moving just
one’s own arm and hand positions these reflections about our attitude at work, which are a
sort of philosophy of the craft, are important because the technical result has a lot to do
with the attitude you take regarding your own psychological and physical aspects
which you have to discipline. The path of the lazy with discipline is not one of disciplining and quenching laziness nor ceasing to be lazy. It’s the path of
continuing to be lazy, but being lazy with discipline. We have to be aware of what generates sloth. On
graphite what does it the most is sharpening the pencil So there are two ways out: either you sharpen the pencil
and when it wears out you go on drawing with worn tip – and the texture gets out of control, your contour lines
lose precision – or you sharpen the pencil all the time I wonder if you will… or you figure out how to sharpen
so that the pencil lasts longer with that tip or at least with a uniform tip for a long time. Then the first path is the one
of the lazy to the full, the undisciplined… Leaving the tip wear down, the drawing be bad,
letting it be, not sharpening and even trying to ignore it Being slothful even to become aware of sloth. The
second: sharpen all the time, is the path of the deluded we believe we will sharpen the pencil
all the time but we won’t, sloth always wins The third is the path of the disciplined lazy: to become
aware that you will NOT always sharpen the pencil and figure out how to sharpen it
in such a way that the tip doesn’t wear down so easily or when it wears down,
it doesn’t lose its quality, it keeps it Thus the path of the disciplined lazy is above all to RESPECT sloth. If you are aware that sloth will win… …you get convinced that you won’t do those things you
believe you will – for instance sharpening all the time – so you take an attitude
in order that sloth be favored so that you manage to work while you rest
and rest while you work When you have all pencils sharpened beforehand,
having everything prepared the way I suggest… …never an acute tip. It is acute indeed
but its ultimate tip is slightly rounded. thus the stroke begins with one quality and
as the tip wears down it maintains the same quality but it doesn’t wear out to the point of thickening,
it remains acute because of this way of sharpening This is a way of sharpening used by all professionals
that I know, because they probably have learned that we have to sharpen it all the time
and need to have this sorted out With all techniques I work on, I develop some ways of
cheating sloth. I figure out what are the things I neglect which end up jeopardizing my work’s quality,
and I take measures to have everything ready to go so that I can enjoy for a long time
without concern about doing that again On acrylics, for instance, paint dries too quickly,
spoils the brush and I lose the colors I’ve already mixed hence I mix all colors in little bunches,
very diluted, and they last for days I stay without mixing paints for days! On pen and ink, I’ve figured out
how to have the pen nib always clean On all techniques I am lazy to the maximum.
This allows you to sit down to draw while knowing… …that you won’t need to get up all the time! For if you
know you’ll have to, it’s already a different attitude and you’re going to work on another mode. But if you
sit down chilled out with everything ready to go the pencils all sharpened, this will already
create an atmosphere of relaxation which foments even inspiration,
and the work flows much better. then you enter a state of full sloth
that is quite restful, it’s the counterwork. Instead of making you weary,
the work rests you. The irony of it all is that the result comes
not from our attempt to dominate sloth rather it comes justly from us honoring sloth,
bowing down to it, learning to deal with it thus taking the correct attitudes so that
we manage to ENJOY sloth rather than resisting to it Isn’t it clever? This is the discipline of the lazy ones.
Or the laziness of the disciplined ones… It takes some years, sometimes we need to mature
to realize we’re not managing to tame sloth but a time has to come when we accept it These are the points of the disappointed lazy and these, the points of the lazy with discipline all you need is a stylus with a large blade. Those with
narrow blades like this usually bend too easily. these blades are sold in packages
that cost a trifle and last for years. use a pot like this to avoid smudging your desk,
your drawing or the teacher’s desk the result of using sharpener is well known, this quite
large graphite cone, this damage done to the wood… these broken tips that we put back in place
with the hope that they weld again… Then the work of flaking the wood begins.
One has to be very careful keeping distance from the graphite
so as to have space to work on it and we go on softly flaking the little chips,
with much care to avoid any accident This is the most critical moment, we need to use
twice the care because we’re approaching graphite any little harm on it may cause some fracture
which makes it prone to break there afterwards so we go on removing these much thinner
flakes on this portion to expose the graphite see how it begins to emerge… and we’ll leave
about 8 mm of its length beyond the wood some people prefer leaving a larger length
of exposed graphite, like 2cm. I find it an overkill because any accident when
the pencil drops will break too much graphite Now we begin the process of thinning out only graphite.
With a quite sharp stylus we go on removing dust and feeling it, note that I touch my finger… then I thin it out a bit more,
feeling if its tip is acute but also a bit rounded then I find that it needed a bit more
and there we have the pencil ready to go To prove this method works,
these next images present the difference between one pencil tip made by sharpener
and other, more acute, made by blade watch what happens when both tips are worn down the worn tip of the acute graphite
is still practically as good as a newly done point you find places with bevels
that can provide ultra precise strokes The correct body posture
while drawing is fundamental As it goes when we are hungry
and it has us even unable to think – “I’m hungry, cannot even think” – when we have our spine bent, curved…
when we are incorrectly seated… when our leg is crossed and asleep… all of that influences our inner state,
our state of mind and concentration… …our inspiration! Energy has to flow and
freely circulate through our body hence we need to aim always,
whenever we sit to draw, to be aware of our posture to keep our spine upright…
Avoid using a horizontal desk It leads the person to bow down too much It’s a very common tendency among students
to neglect their physical posture If you provide some slant, be it a slanted desk,
or else use a board laid over some books provide some angle in order to stay
in a more natural body state Lay your arms down on the desk,
release their weight on it If your elbows get sore, put cushions under them You have to favor your body really,
you become picky, all fussy, but it’s important Because over time your elbow begins to hurt you may have skin troubles on your elbow
if you spend too much time drawing So it’s a serious thing
and has to be taken seriously Posture interferes a lot on our mood
and our willingness to continue the work Well, we already know the pencil movements
and have the pencils sharpened we already have our spine upright, our desk slanted now finally we are able to start the guidebook exercises So let’s start with the very first exercise which is that of the
shapeless smudges, diluted all around This is quite a simple exercise, just a practice
of the elliptic movement with short strokes forming marks that both on the start and the end
of strokes leave margins with very soft edges Note that I don’t go just once
through the same site I come back over it
to even out marks of the previous strokes Now it’s incredible how a simple change
already brings a lot of challenges when you have set the boundaries of a picture,
it changes the way you have to land the pencil so as to respect the boundaries
and try to keep evenness within those borders it’s amazing how something so simple ends up raising
so many challenges to getting evenness and precision This is the practice that comes right below
the former exercise in the guidebook where I suggest one to make up any shape,
aiming to shade or darken this shape within boundaries Thus we make the strokes always in the same direction,
first starting at one side of the picture and then we come with the strokes from the other side,
and the strokes meet in the middle of the picture The process continues and we can overlap
another layer with slightly crossed strokes without forcing the pencil, to avoid darkening,
it’s just to even it out, so we maintain the shading’s tone In this next demonstration we’ll see in detail
how to deal with the edges when we face the very common problems
of edges not being respected that much This is quite detailed in the guidebook,
but the demonstration will make it quite clearer Starting then from any line that may be
a contour of a determined figure, the strokes must begin on the line but eventually they start a little bit further,
leaving blank spaces As I explain further on the same section, the next layer would already have its strokes
slightly crossed in relationship to the former ones, If the filling near the margin is not quite precise
we end up with all these blank spaces at borders which can be covered with strokes
thoroughly crossed onto the former ones… with a lightness that ends up
scattering enough this shading so that the difference in direction
of strokes cannot be perceived One must always take it easy
not to darken it too much, and clearing ears now! So I show how it is possible to shade with strokes in
all directions, making these strokes dilute themselves in such a way that one will not perceive their direction,
and the filling in gets all uniform That’s why I don’t use
“smudge stamps” or manual smearing The very tip of the graphite already helps to blur
the former layers and to leave everything more diffuse It’s also common, besides blank spaces arising near
the edges, sometimes students also exceed the border As I have been a student, I’ve exceeded it also when I
began my practice, until I figured out the correct manner The correct manner is that of the musician. You land
[the pencil] exactly on the line and start right from it. Musicians – no matter how fast is the piece played –
they land their hand exactly on the note Even if the note is distant,
they have a millimetric precision in their muscles Our precision also ends up coming with practice.
You do the stroke quickly but get back slowly. And you LAND the pencil slowly,
and this landing is where the secret of precision resides In these short strokes I am just simulating what
happens when students exceed the edge as they shade Then we do this process of landing slowly, and
the stroke can be done quickly, but the LANDING is slow After that, as we have done in the former exercise, we
cross strokes for shading, trrrrying to save the edges!!!… …well, at least it’s a good demonstration
about exceeding edges… How in the world would a little stroke not escape? Over time you become so skilled
in respecting the edges that you’re able to render a straight line
even though the line is not present you make a stroke beside the other and the
straight line arises by the continuum of these strokes The strokes begin out of the void
without an initial leading line But all the beginnings of strokes
aligned together form a straight line The loss of precision and care with drawing usually is
derived from rushing, from the need of doing it quickly If our goal is to be quick, we won’t attain precision. But if
the goal is precision, we end up achieving quickness With practice, it turns out that even
precise strokes will be made increasingly faster Over time we end up working much faster, without
even noticing how that speed was developed At first then it’s better to focus on precision On the exact precision of shading
starting at the edges of the drawing, to not exceed them All musicians know that: in order to achieve a fast scale,
they begin slowly, playing each note clearly In the end they play all the notes
much more quickly and also clearly. In our case there’s no need to hurry.
Musicians are obliged to play rapid scales, we are not. So we need to focus
on precision in the first place and oftentimes we need to renounce speed and
quickness because these jeopardize the outcome This very precision makes possible
splicing strokes on one another But here is an Unidentified Landed Object Have you seen that little grime there? It will be smashed
now by the graphite, it will be a cruel trampling And this is a typical accident
that leaves irreparable stains in the work Depending on what this little grime is, it can leave
something on the paper that cannot ever be removed That’s why it’s good to keep the paper clean.
How one does that? Brushes like this, used to sweep the paper. Or else like this…
Before drawing, we brush it over the paper. After drawing be very careful
because it carries graphite along. At long last we get to the main
misunderstanding of the Guidebook, the section 1.3 which shows these… THIS rectangle,
being filled in along several stages… It’s the SAME rectangle, as you can see
in the large bold highlight Portuguese word “MESMO”=”SAME” in English
(English text is improved to reduce misunderstandings) I had sensed people could take it wrong,
hence I already highlighted it beforehand Even so it seems that the picture
speaks much louder than the text People bring several rectangles done,
exactly like they’ve seen in the picture… As if in a cosmetic makeup class they would bring
several people, each having one phase of the makeup I suspect they’ve only seen the pictures…
Maybe next time I’ll do a guidebook that… …two guidebooks! One with… all this content
and another one having only the word: “SAME”… So now we’ll see how it’s gradually filled in,
which are the pencils one has to use What are the layers about, when one changes pencils… let’s see it all in detail so no doubts will remain Beginning with a pencil H, quite light,
but it could be even a 2H The filling in begins the way we’ve already seen,
by strokes done from the edges within the figure, trying to respect the edges, and of course
strokes don’t need to run through the entire figure we splice strokes using elliptic movement,
in this mode that provides even filling Later on once again we splice,
then in this last space here to the right where there is gradient towards white,
we are very careful to make a mild gradient The rectangle is evenly filled in – now we go over all
a bit more until it gets quite uniform and only in the end a blank space is left, the rest
is entirely uniform. In this end there is a gradient. The process restarts identically, using the same pencil,
but with very much the same hand pressure Not to darken too much nor to press the pencil too
much, for it’s a hard graphite and marks the paper Now we’ll take care in this gradient zone,
that is retracted further than the previous one So the first gradient zone was placed here,
whereas the second starts here, a bit earlier we go on increasingly retracting it. Still with same pencil, BEING EQUALLY LIGHT-HANDED
we overlap a new layer, checking if it’s effective otherwise it just evens it out and it’s fine.
But it has no effect and we change it, going to HB. Then the whole process begins again,
holding the pencil light-handedly for when we change pencils, the tendency is
to maintain hand pressure, but we have to hold it lightly taking care not to darken it overly
[for we deal with new graphite characteristics] And here in this gradient zone, always be careful,
retracting while aiming for a good unmarked gradient Gradient zone gets more restricted,
now we even out again what’s done And here is the third zone of gradient retraction. The process continues always the same, holding pencil
with same lightness, not to force it on paper Same filling in, equally retracting further,
same care in gradient. Again marking this
fourth zone of gradient retraction Now a new pencil, as the other
became no longer effective, we pick up 2B Now there is no secret anymore,
the process repeats, always alike And what makes difference is the gradient retraction.
Each new layer we apply, we stop a bit earlier Here I mark it again,
obviously students don’t need to do it. Here one more layer with the same 2B pencil,
which ends a bit earlier I change to 3B, as I was sensing 2B
was no longer quite effective I use an extender because the pencil is too short.
These extenders are available for sale Again very much the same process, still retracting
the gradient zone, and again the same 3B, another layer Now changing to a Cretacolor 3B
that equals other brands’ 4B This red model is even softer than “normal” brands. Same process, increasingly
retracted to the left edge of the rectangle And the gradient ending here.
All darkest pencils got restricted to the left edge. Most of the drawings we do have their largest part
made of halftones. Light halftones, dark halftones… But an immense portion consists of halftones And only small portions consist of the
most luminous light tones and the darkest tone or tones Unless it’s a nighttime scene where we fill in the
whole paper with “night”. But overall halftone prevails. If you are able to perceive that
every object you draw has just a small area of light – and everything else is halftone, with a small area
of dark tone – then your drawing improves because light gets restricted
and it provides a special effect by which we’re able to capture light
with more precision and quality Thus in this method, the darker your pencil is
– from 3, 4 up to 6, 8B – the darker the pencil,
the lesser the area where it will be used In this method, the pencils that end up
being most used range from H to HB and 2B it stays around that, in the halftones. I continue with same pencil,
since it’s still effective when I hold it light-handedly. I made a new layer
that ended restricted up to here I change to 5B, for I change pencils only
when it’s ineffective under light-handed pressure There’s no rule to use
one pencil for each layer As 5B had effect on one layer only
and became already weak, I move on to 7B and restrict its use
to a little portion of the left corner So the latest layer ended here (arrow)
and this layer of 7B ends here (arrow) Attached to this exercise of the rectangle with a
gradient there are those rectangles with no gradient which are divided in bands.
The process is identical, everything by layers… the only difference is that we don’t work
the gradient in each layer, rather we leave bands there The other picture that has several shade transitions,
several gradients within the same rectangle… is done with the same process, same gradient
we’ve seen, but instead of making only one gradient as in the demonstrated exercise, there are several
gradients in the same rectangle, no secrets. Even if we maintain quite a light hand, graphite reveals
certain brilliance when held to the light but using light hand the paper
will not be grooved So this is the minimum brilliance we’re able to get. To
cancel out the brilliance, solely using a 6B straight away because there really is this way of drawing,
straight to point, which is quite a usual practice… people use two pencils, H and 6B, or else 6B alone!
So let’s see what we get by that. This shade to the left was done with
a 2B and a 3B with overlapped layers and this one to the right was done with only 6B
on a textured paper, the “C à grain” by Canson. Note how the one to the left gleams,
but the one with 6B alone doesn’t gleam but if you look carefully, the texture
gets a lot more pronounced because 6B is not able
to penetrate the paper’s grooves whereas pencils a bit harder
penetrate the grooves hence it ends up being a choice
between texture and gleam So you’ve seen we have differences in the outcome Now we’ll see an addition to the guidebook,
I don’t address it there because it’s hard to be explained in written words.
It’s a demonstration with the kneaded eraser In addition, further on
we’ll have a demonstration of how to test papers and some examples of papers available for sale Kneaded erasers come in this proper package,
generally plastic, I cut what I’ll use and save the rest keeping it inside some plastic box
like this, made for dental instruments And a minor piece is kept apart to be used,
which I protect from the case dirt too Then if I fill in any shade and marks arise,
I make a keel in it by squeezing like that And this keel is what will be put exactly on the
stroke I want to remove, just by using light touches Wait, wait a minute! STOP!! If you are beginning to… dream of using kneaded eraser
all the time, right away in your hand… to be there as a tool for drawing… forget about it!!!
Kneaded eraser marks, it smudges maybe it will grease the paper, it leaves residues…
It’s better to avoid it. Kneaded eraser is supposed to be used
as a tool for ultimate finishing, final touches… …when we detect some little spots,
one or another shading that got off of control Or else for doing grand corrections of…
monster-errors, but… it’s better to not do monster-errors. When you realize
you’re entering one, you have to readily realize “oops, I am committing a monster-error!”
And stop it ready! Before committing it. Otherwise you sometimes damage the paper,
and not even the kneaded eraser can fix it. So at finishing stages we remove
some strokes that got off of control and when the kneaded eraser is blemished, we remake
its form, squeezing it again to make a new keel where the top mass will be cleaner, and then we give
some light touches, it’s not supposed to be scrubbed just a mild touch and you remove it,
for the graphite sticks on it. You can also make a little tip to remove
tiny spots of marks from paper or graphite that arise “and why nails that big, Mr. Lupo?” (Lupo=Wolf)
“To better play the viola, Little Red Riding Hood” Kneaded eraser must never be used like this… in this crude way, beating and smudging the paper…
it must be lightly hit on paper And to scrub it yet, by no means! Because it leaves
residues and blemishes paper as you’re seeing Don’t ever use it like a conventional eraser even less as plasticine, for you have specific stuff
available for sale to use for your fun Corrections of monster-errors must be done
using the keels, patiently, stroke by stroke This is how I usually test papers: I do some uniform
zig zag shading, trying to keep the same hand pressure checking if spontaneous marks arise on paper,
which are due to the paper and not to my shading This is an “Acervo Debret” paper
in its front face, I do appreciate this paper Its texture looks a bit accentuated,
but that’s because it’s being filmed under a lens Now this is its back face, even less textured.
It provides a very even result. This is a Canson C à grain, which is quite textured
and plucks a lot of graphite out of the pencil It looks even easier to work on, but it leaves
this texture too much accentuated on its front face Despite the uniformity with which I applied graphite,
these spontaneous marks arise and if I continue testing over this, more marks will arise.
But if one works with delicacy it’s an excellent paper. Here the test of its back face reveals that the texture is
much less accentuated, yet some marks still arise It plucks graphite quite well, so it facilitates work,
since we don’t make so much effort to apply layers This is a Canson from students’ line,
that has a very fine and uniform texture in its front face Note that it doesn’t raise many marks,
and its back face has practically identical texture but this is a paper that tends to yellow over time Now this is a Canson Bristol which is a bit bluish
and its texture is really very smooth So it tends to saturate more, note that it leaves
just few small blank marks embedded in shading This is a Strathmore 300, not easily found in Brazil,
it has a very good color, as well as very good texture it’s neither too smooth nor too textured,
and it ends up being the ideal surface for graphite… because it holds graphite firmly enough,
also not demanding much effort for filling in Both front and back face of it work fairly well Papers appear to be white, but actually
when you put them side by side they reveal their color So in this photo we perceive
papers’ colors when they are juxtaposed I would call some of them blue, some a bit creamy or
greenish, some other more roseate or violet-tinged But of course it’s a subtle difference. At first
we can observe it solely by comparison Later on we start to be able
to perceive colors without any comparison just having the very white paper… it’s no longer white So you have to choose not only the texture
you prefer on a paper but also color. Many times color displeases the person. Some papers are used
by artists for graphite papers made for pen and ink art,
such as Fabriano 4, Lavis Technique… These papers are generally very smooth,
tending to saturate too much – though as much as an Opaline or Bristol – but besides that, they have a layer of gesso,
then they get this problem that when you fill in just once with graphite,
if you need to remove it, it may get permanently stained You can’t remove it because the graphite
penetrates very tiny pores of the gesso So I don’t recommend using these papers for graphite,
I do prefer papers a little bit more textured For they grasp graphite better,
so you take less time doing the work the filling in gets more beautiful
and they don’t saturate so easily One minute of Medicinal Art Turn up volume – Wear your 4D glasses
Listen in silence If it weren’t for Art in our lives, Long time ago the world would have already collapsed Here we finish this first video lesson. If you liked it, subscribe to the channel
and also like the page on Facebook I’ll always post novelties, news about workshops
and the latest art I am working on. Test of sound… and of dog test of dog… Test with (microphone’s) sensitivity
to zero decibels… lesser sensitivity…. let’s see if it picks up the fly, that’s here flying…

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